Part (4)~ 美國普遍的自閉症教學和治療法




國家精神衛生研究所美國的自閉症協會建議的治療方法,例如聽覺訓練(auditory training)、分解式操作教學法(DTT)、 維他命治療(vitamin therapy)、反酵素治療(anti-yeast therapy)、溝通的便利器(facilitated communication)、 音樂治療、 職能治療、 物理治療、感官統合。

4 種在美國最為普遍且被學術專業肯定的Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

  1. “分解式操作教學法",將教學目標分解成最簡易學習的單一課程:Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
  2. 適合5 歲以下孩子的早期密集行為介入: Early Intensive behavioral Intervention (EIBI)
  3. 有專業語言/肢體治療師訓練同儕參與,增加孩子主動溝通的中樞反應訓練: Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
  4. 有專業語言治療師參與,專注於口語的主動表達: Verbal Behavior Intervention (VBI)

 其他現行的方法 (非屬ABA)

  •  Relationship-Based Approach (DIR; also called “Floortime”) Floortime focuses on emotional and relational development (feelings, relationships with caregivers). It also focuses on how the child deals with sights, sounds, and smells.
  • Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped Children (TEACCH) TEAACH uses visual cues to teach skills. For example, picture cards can help teach a child how to get dressed by breaking information down into small steps.
  •  Occupational Therapy Occupational therapy teaches skills that help the person live as independently as possible. Skills might include dressing, eating, bathing, and relating to people.
  • Sensory Integration Therapy Sensory integration therapy helps the person deal with sensory information, like sights, sounds, and smells. Sensory integration therapy could help a child who is bothered by certain sounds or does not like to be touched.
  • Speech Therapy Speech therapy helps to improve the person’s communication skills. Some people are able to learn verbal communication skills. For others, using gestures or picture boards is more realistic.
  • The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) PECS uses picture symbols to teach communication skills. The person is taught to use picture symbols to ask and answer questions and have a conversation